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AbstractCycad taxonomy and systematics are plagued by insufﬁcient and inconsistent species descriptions. Problems associated with the inadequate description of Dioon mejiae were perpetuated for more than 50 years. These include (1) unfounded and inaccurate reports of mature plant size, species distribution, and population numbers; (2) incomplete and/or erroneous descriptions of the type source locality; and (3) inaccurate designation of conservation status. In this chapter, the description of D. mejiae is emended following, to the extent possible, Walters and Osborne’s (2004) taxonomic description guidelines. Included herein are (1) name, location, number of adult plants, area encompassed, habitat type, geology/soil type, and reproductive status of all known populations; (2) emended Latin description; (3) taxonomic key of the species and its closest relatives; (4) designation of a standard vernacular name; (5) brief overview of human uses; (6) estimates of the number of domestic plants in Honduras and Nicaragua and cultivated plants in ex situ collections worldwide; and (7) discussion of threats, conservation status, and in situ conservation recommendations.
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